Rule 9. Pleading special matters.

(a) Capacity or Authority to Sue; Legal Existence.

(1) In General. Except when required to show that the court has jurisdiction, a pleading need not allege:

(A) a party's capacity to sue or be sued;

(B) a party's authority to sue or be sued in a representative capacity; or

(C) the legal existence of an organized association of persons that is made a party.

(2) Raising Those Issues. To raise any of those issues, a party must do so by a specific denial, which must state any supporting facts that are peculiarly within the party's knowledge.

(b) Unknown parties.

(b)(1) Designation. When a party does not know the name of an opposing party, it may state that fact in the pleadings, and designate the opposing party in a pleading by any name. When the true name of the opposing party becomes known, the pleading must be amended.

(b)(2) Descriptions of interest in quiet title actions. If one or more parties in an action to quiet title are designated in the caption as “unknown,” the pleadings may describe the unknown persons as “all other persons unknown, claiming any right, title, estate or interest in, or lien upon the real property described in the pleading adverse to the complainant's ownership, or clouding its title.”

(c) Fraud, mistake, condition of the mind. In alleging fraud or mistake, a party must state with particularity the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake. Malice, intent, knowledge, and other conditions of a person’s mind may be alleged generally.

(d) Conditions precedent. In pleading conditions precedent, it is sufficient to allege generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. When denying that a condition precedent has been performed or has occurred, a party must do so with particularity.

(e) Official document or act. In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to allege that the document was legally issued or the act was legally done.

(f) Judgment. In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or foreign court, a judicial or quasijudicial tribunal, or a board or officer, it is sufficient to plead the judgment or decision without showing jurisdiction to render it.

(g) Time and place. An allegation of time or place is material when testing the sufficiency of a pleading.

(h) Special damage. If an item of special damage is claimed, it must be specifically stated.

(i) Statute of limitations. In pleading the statute of limitations it is not necessary to state the facts showing the defense but it may be alleged generally that the cause of action is barred by the statute, referring to or describing the statute by section number, subsection designation, if any, or designating the provision relied on sufficiently to identify it.

(j) Private statutes; ordinances. In pleading a private statute, an ordinance, or a right derived from a statute or ordinance, it is sufficient to refer to the statute or ordinance by its title and the day of its passage or by its section number or other designation in any official publication of the statute or ordinance. The court will take judicial notice of the statute or ordinance.

(k) Libel and slander.

(k)(1) Pleading defamatory matter. In an action for libel or slander it is sufficient to allege generally that the defamatory matter out of which the action arose was published or spoken concerning the plaintiff. If the allegation is denied, the party alleging the defamatory matter must establish at trial that it was published or spoken.

(k)(2) Pleading defense. The defendant may allege the truth of the matter charged as defamatory and any mitigating circumstances to reduce the amount of damages. Whether or not justification is proved, the defendant may give evidence of the mitigating circumstances.

(l) Allocation of fault.

(l)(1) A party seeking to allocate fault to a non-party under Title 78B, Chapter 5, Part 8 must file:

(l)(1)(A) a description of the factual and legal basis on which fault can be allocated; and

(l)(1)(B) information known or reasonably available to the party identifying the non-party, including name, address, telephone number and employer. If the identity of the non-party is unknown, the party must so state.

(l)(2) The information specified in  paragraph (l)(1) must be included in the party's responsive pleading if then known or must be included in a supplemental notice filed within a reasonable time after the party discovers the factual and legal basis on which fault can be allocated. The court, upon motion and for good cause shown, may permit a party to file the information specified in paragraph (l)(1) after the expiration of any period permitted by this rule, but in no event later than 90 days before trial.

(l)(3) A party must not seek to allocate fault to another except by compliance with this rule.


Advisory Committee Notes


Effective as of November 1, 2016.