Rule 4. Process.

(a) Signing of summons. The summons shall be signed and issued by the plaintiff or the plaintiff's attorney. Separate summonses may be signed and served.

(b)(i) Time of service. In an action commenced under Rule 3(a)(1), the summons together with a copy of the complaint shall be served no later than 120 days after the filing of the complaint unless the court allows a longer period of time for good cause shown. If the summons and complaint are not timely served, the action shall be dismissed, without prejudice on application of any party or upon the court's own initiative.

(b)(ii) In any action brought against two or more defendants on which service has been timely obtained upon one of them,

(b)(ii)(A) the plaintiff may proceed against those served, and

(b)(ii)(B) the others may be served or appear at any time prior to trial.

(c) Contents of summons.

(c)(1) The summons shall contain the name of the court, the address of the court, the names of the parties to the action, and the county in which it is brought. It shall be directed to the defendant, state the name, address and telephone number of the plaintiff's attorney, if any, and otherwise the plaintiff's address and telephone number. It shall state the time within which the defendant is required to answer the complaint in writing, and shall notify the defendant that in case of failure to do so, judgment by default will be rendered against the defendant. It shall state either that the complaint is on file with the court or that the complaint will be filed with the court within ten days of service.

(c)(2) If the action is commenced under Rule 3(a)(2), the summons shall state that the defendant need not answer if the complaint is not filed within 10 days after service and shall state the telephone number of the clerk of the court where the defendant may call at least 13 days after service to determine if the complaint has been filed.

(c)(3) If service is made by publication, the summons shall briefly state the subject matter and the sum of money or other relief demanded, and that the complaint is on file with the court.

(d) Method of service. Unless waived in writing, service of the summons and complaint shall be by one of the following methods:

(d)(1) Personal service. The summons and complaint may be served in any state or judicial district of the United States by the sheriff or constable or by the deputy of either, by a United States Marshal or by the marshal's deputy, or by any other person 18 years of age or older at the time of service and not a party to the action or a party's attorney. If the person to be served refuses to accept a copy of the process, service shall be sufficient if the person serving the same shall state the name of the process and offer to deliver a copy thereof. Personal service shall be made as follows:

(d)(1)(A) Upon any individual other than one covered by subparagraphs (B), (C) or (D) below, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the individual personally, or by leaving a copy at the individual's dwelling house or usual place of abode with some person of suitable age and discretion there residing, or by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to an agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process;

(d)(1)(B) Upon an infant (being a person under 14 years) by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the infant and also to the infant's father, mother or guardian or, if none can be found within the state, then to any person having the care and control of the infant, or with whom the infant resides, or in whose service the infant is employed;

(d)(1)(C) Upon an individual judicially declared to be of unsound mind or incapable of conducting the person's own affairs, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the person and to the person's legal representative if one has been appointed and in the absence of such representative, to the individual, if any, who has care, custody or control of the person;

(d)(1)(D) Upon an individual incarcerated or committed at a facility operated by the state or any of its political subdivisions, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the person who has the care, custody, or control of the individual to be served, or to that person's designee or to the guardian or conservator of the individual to be served if one has been appointed, who shall, in any case, promptly deliver the process to the individual served;

(d)(1)(E) Upon any corporation not herein otherwise provided for, upon a partnership or upon an unincorporated association which is subject to suit under a common name, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to an officer, a managing or general agent, or other agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process and, if the agent is one authorized by statute to receive service and the statute so requires, by also mailing a copy of the summons and the complaint to the defendant. If no such officer or agent can be found within the state, and the defendant has, or advertises or holds itself out as having, an office or place of business within the state or elsewhere, or does business within this state or elsewhere, then upon the person in charge of such office or place of business;

(d)(1)(F) Upon an incorporated city or town, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the recorder;

(d)(1)(G) Upon a county, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the county clerk of such county;

(d)(1)(H) Upon a school district or board of education, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the superintendent or business administrator of the board;

(d)(1)(I) Upon an irrigation or drainage district, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the president or secretary of its board;

(d)(1)(J) Upon the state of Utah, in such cases as by law are authorized to be brought against the state, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to the attorney general and any other person or agency required by statute to be served; and

(d)(1)(K) Upon a department or agency of the state of Utah, or upon any public board, commission or body, subject to suit, by delivering a copy of the summons and the complaint to any member of its governing board, or to its executive employee or secretary.

(d)(2) Service by mail or commercial courier service.

(d)(2)(A) The summons and complaint may be served upon an individual other than one covered by paragraphs (d)(1)(B) or (d)(1)(C) by mail or commercial courier service in any state or judicial district of the United States provided the defendant signs a document indicating receipt.

(d)(2)(B) The summons and complaint may be served upon an entity covered by paragraphs (d)(1)(E) through (d)(1)(I) by mail or commercial courier service in any state or judicial district of the United States provided defendant's agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process signs a document indicating receipt.

(d)(2)(C) Service by mail or commercial courier service shall be complete on the date the receipt is signed as provided by this rule.

(d)(3) Service in a foreign country. Service in a foreign country shall be made as follows:

(d)(3)(A) by any internationally agreed means reasonably calculated to give notice, such as those means authorized by the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents;

(d)(3)(B) if there is no internationally agreed means of service or the applicable international agreement allows other means of service, provided that service is reasonably calculated to give notice:

(d)(3)(B)(i) in the manner prescribed by the law of the foreign country for service in that country in an action in any of its courts of general jurisdiction;

(d)(3)(B)(ii) as directed by the foreign authority in response to a letter rogatory or letter of request; or

(d)(3)(B)(iii) unless prohibited by the law of the foreign country, by delivery to the individual personally of a copy of the summons and the complaint or by any form of mail requiring a signed receipt, to be addressed and dispatched by the clerk of the court to the party to be served; or

(d)(3)(C) by other means not prohibited by international agreement as may be directed by the court.

(d)(4) Other service.

(d)(4)(A) Where the identity or whereabouts of the person to be served are unknown and cannot be ascertained through reasonable diligence, where service upon all of the individual parties is impracticable under the circumstances, or where there exists good cause to believe that the person to be served is avoiding service of process, the party seeking service of process may file a motion supported by affidavit requesting an order allowing service by publication or by some other means. The supporting affidavit shall set forth the efforts made to identify, locate or serve the party to be served, or the circumstances which make it impracticable to serve all of the individual parties.

(d)(4)(B) If the motion is granted, the court shall order service of process by means reasonably calculated, under all the circumstances, to apprise the interested parties of the pendency of the action to the extent reasonably possible or practicable. The court's order shall also specify the content of the process to be served and the event or events as of which service shall be deemed complete. Unless service is by publication, a copy of the court's order shall be served upon the defendant with the process specified by the court.

(d)(4)(C) In any proceeding where summons is required to be published, the court shall, upon the request of the party applying for publication, designate the newspaper in which publication shall be made. The newspaper selected shall be a newspaper of general circulation in the county where such publication is required to be made.

(e) Proof of service.

(e)(1) If service is not waived, the person effecting service shall file proof with the court. The proof of service must state the date, place, and manner of service. Proof of service made pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) shall include a receipt signed by the defendant or defendant's agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process. If service is made by a person other than by an attorney, the sheriff or constable, or by the deputy of either, by a United States Marshal or by the marshal's deputy, the proof of service shall be made by affidavit.

(e)(2) Proof of service in a foreign country shall be made as prescribed in these rules for service within this state, or by the law of the foreign country, or by order of the court. When service is made pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(C), proof of service shall include a receipt signed by the addressee or other evidence of delivery to the addressee satisfactory to the court.

(e)(3) Failure to make proof of service does not affect the validity of the service. The court may allow proof of service to be amended.

(f) Waiver of service; Payment of costs for refusing to waive.

(f)(1) A plaintiff may request a defendant subject to service under paragraph (d) to waive service of a summons. The request shall be mailed or delivered to the person upon whom service is authorized under paragraph (d). It shall include a copy of the complaint, shall allow the defendant at least 20 days from the date on which the request is sent to return the waiver, or 30 days if addressed to a defendant outside of the United States, and shall be substantially in the form of the Notice of Lawsuit and Request for Waiver of Service of Summons set forth in the Appendix of Forms attached to these rules.

(f)(2) A defendant who timely returns a waiver is not required to respond to the complaint until 45 days after the date on which the request for waiver of service was mailed or delivered to the defendant, or 60 days after that date if addressed to a defendant outside of the United States.

(f)(3) A defendant who waives service of a summons does not thereby waive any objection to venue or to the jurisdiction of the court over the defendant.

(f)(4) If a defendant refuses a request for waiver of service submitted in accordance with this rule, the court shall impose upon the defendant the costs subsequently incurred in effecting service.

Advisory Committee Notes