Rule 30. Depositions upon oral examination.

(a) When depositions may be taken; When leave required.

(a)(1) A party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon oral examination without leave of court except as provided in paragraph (2). The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpoena as provided in Rule 45.

(a)(2) A party must obtain leave of court, which shall be granted to the extent consistent with the principles stated in Rule 26(b)(3), if the person to be examined is confined in prison or if, without the written stipulation of the parties:

(a)(2)(A) a proposed deposition would result in more than ten depositions being taken under this rule or Rule 31 by the plaintiffs, or by the defendants, or by third-party defendants;

(a)(2)(B) the person to be examined already has been deposed in the case; or

(a)(2)(C) a party seeks to take a deposition before the time specified in Rule 26(d) unless the notice contains a certification, with supporting facts, that the person to be examined is expected to leave the state and will be unavailable for examination unless deposed before that time. The party or party’s attorney shall sign the notice, and the signature constitutes a certification subject to the sanctions provided by Rule 11.

(b) Notice of examination; general requirements; special notice; non-stenographic recording; production of documents and things; deposition of organization; deposition by telephone.

(b)(1) A party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon oral examination shall give reasonable notice in writing to every other party to the action. The notice shall state the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined, if known, and, if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs. If a subpoena duces tecum is to be served on the person to be examined, the designation of the materials to be produced as set forth in the subpoena shall be attached to or included in the notice.

(b)(2) The party taking the deposition shall state in the notice the method by which the testimony shall be recorded. Unless the court orders otherwise, it may be recorded by sound, sound-and-visual, or stenographic means, and the party taking the deposition shall bear the cost of the recording.

(b)(3) With prior notice to the deponent and other parties, any party may designate another method to record the deponent's testimony in addition to the method specified by the person taking the deposition. The additional record or transcript shall be made at that party's expense unless the court otherwise orders.

(b)(4) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a deposition shall be conducted before an officer appointed or designated under Rule 28 and shall begin with a statement on the record by the officer that includes (A) the officer's name and business address; (B) the date, time and place of the deposition; (C) the name of the deponent; (D) the administration of the oath or affirmation to the deponent; and (E) an identification of all persons present. If the deposition is recorded other than stenographically, the officer shall repeat items (A) through (C) at the beginning of each unit of tape or other recording medium. The appearance or demeanor of deponents or attorneys shall not be distorted through camera or sound-recording techniques. At the end of the deposition, the officer shall state on the record that the deposition is complete and shall set forth any stipulations made by counsel concerning the custody of the transcript or recording and the exhibits, or concerning other pertinent matters.

(b)(5) The notice to a party deponent may be accompanied by a request made in compliance with Rule 34 for the production of documents and tangible things at the taking of the deposition. The procedure of Rule 34 shall apply to the request.

(b)(6) A party may in the notice and in a subpoena name as the deponent a public or private corporation, a partnership, an association, or a governmental agency and describe with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. In that event, the organization so named shall designate one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on its behalf and may set forth, for each person designated, the matters on which the person will testify. A subpoena shall advise a nonparty organization of its duty to make such a designation. The persons so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization. This Subdivision (b)(6) does not preclude taking a deposition by any other procedure authorized in these rules.

(b)(7) The parties may stipulate in writing or the court may upon motion order that a deposition be taken by remote electronic means. For the purposes of this rule and Rules 28(a), 37(b)(1), and 45(d), a deposition taken by remote electronic means is taken at the place where the deponent is to answer questions.

(c) Examination and cross-examination; record of examination; oath; objections. Examination and cross-examination of witnesses may proceed as permitted at the trial under the provisions of the Utah Rules of Evidence, except Rules 103 and 615. The officer before whom the deposition is to be taken shall put the witnesses on oath or affirmation and shall personally, or by someone acting under the officer’s direction and in the officer’s presence, record the testimony of the witness. All objections made at the time of the examination to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, to the manner of taking it, to the evidence presented, or to the conduct of any party and any other objection to the proceedings shall be noted by the officer upon the record of the deposition, but the examination shall proceed with the testimony being taken subject to the objections. In lieu of participating in the oral examination, parties may serve written questions in a sealed envelope on the party taking the deposition, and the party taking the deposition shall transmit them to the officer, who shall propound them to the witness and record the answers verbatim.

(d) Schedule and duration; motion to terminate or limit examination.

(d)(1) Any objection to evidence during a deposition shall be stated concisely and in a non-argumentative and non-suggestive manner. A person may instruct a deponent not to answer only when necessary to preserve a privilege, to enforce a limitation on evidence directed by the court, or to present a motion under paragraph (4).

(d)(2) Unless otherwise authorized by the court or stipulated by the parties, a deposition is limited to one day of seven hours. The court must allow additional time consistent with Rule 26(b)(2) if needed for a fair examination of the deponent or if the deponent or another person, or other circumstance, impedes or delays the examination.

(d)(3) If the court finds that any impediment, delay, or other conduct has frustrated the fair examination of the deponent, it may impose upon the persons responsible an appropriate sanction, including the reasonable costs and attorney fees incurred by any parties as a result thereof.

(d)(4) At any time during the taking of the deposition, on motion of a party or of the deponent and upon a showing that the examination is being conducted in bad faith or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or party, the court in which the action is pending or the court in the district where the deposition is being taken may order the officer conducting the examination to cease forthwith from taking the deposition, or may limit the scope and manner of the taking of the deposition as provided in Rule 26(c). If the order made terminates the examination, it shall be resumed thereafter only upon the order of the court in which the action is pending. Upon demand of the objecting party or deponent, the taking of the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a motion for an order. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

(e) Submission to witness; changes; signing. If requested by the deponent or a party before completion of the deposition, the deponent shall have 30 days after being notified by the officer that the transcript or recording is available in which to review the transcript or recording and, if there are changes in form or substance, to sign a statement reciting such changes and the reasons given by the deponent for making them. The officer shall indicate in the certificate prescribed by subdivision (f)(1) whether any review was requested and, if so, shall append any changes made by the deponent during the period allowed.

(f) Record of deposition; certification and delivery by officer; exhibits; copies.

(f)(1) The transcript or other recording of the deposition made in accordance with this rule shall be the record of the deposition. The officer shall sign a certificate, to accompany the record of the deposition, that the witness was duly sworn and that the transcript or other recording is a true record of the testimony given by the witness. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the officer shall securely seal the record of the deposition in an envelope endorsed with the title of the action and marked "Deposition of" and shall promptly send the sealed record of the deposition to the attorney who arranged for the transcript or other record to be made. If the party taking the deposition is not represented by an attorney, the record of the deposition shall be sent to the clerk of the court for filing unless otherwise ordered by the court. An attorney receiving the record of the deposition shall store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, tampering, or deterioration.

(f)(2) Documents and things produced for inspection during the examination of the witness shall, upon the request of a party, be marked for identification and annexed to the record of the deposition and may be inspected and copied by any party, except that, if the person producing the materials desires to retain them, that person may (A) offer copies to be marked for identification and annexed to the record of the deposition and to serve thereafter as originals, if the person affords to all parties fair opportunity to verify the copies by comparison with the originals, or (B) offer the originals to be marked for identification, after giving to each party an opportunity to inspect and copy them, in which event the originals may be used in the same manner as if annexed to the record of the deposition. Any party may move for an order that the originals be annexed to and returned with the record of the deposition to the court, pending final disposition of the case.

(f)(3) Unless otherwise ordered by the court or agreed by the parties, the officer shall retain stenographic notes of any depositions taken stenographically or a copy of the recording of any deposition taken by another method. Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the officer shall furnish a copy of the record of the deposition to any party or to the deponent. Any party or the deponent may arrange for a transcription to be made from the recording of a deposition taken by non-stenographic means.

(g) Failure to attend or to serve subpoena; expenses.

(g)(1) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another party attends in person or by attorney pursuant to the notice, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.

(g)(2) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition of a witness fails to serve a subpoena upon him and the witness because of such failure does not attend, and if another party attends in person or by attorney because he expects the deposition of that witness to be taken, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.

Advisory Committee Notes